Phenylpiracetam: A Review

Phenylpiracetam, a phenylated analog of the famous and generic nootropic piracetam, is clinically used in its racemic form as a nootropic drug that improves physical and mental state. It has been developed in Russia in 1983, where is still available as a prescription drug. Thus, a small yet considerable number of low-scale clinical studies have shown its potential anti-amnesic, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, antipsychotic, and anxiolytic properties. Here we summarize and analyze the evidence.

In this study, the central neurotropic effects of the compound were studied and compared with the effects of piracetam, morpholene and phenylpyrrolidone. Phenylpiracetam was found to activate the operant behavior more powerfully, to remove psychodepressant effects of diazepam, to inhibit post-rotational nystagmus, and to prevent the development of retrograde amnesia. Nevertheless, when given in high doses, the compound under study produces psychodepressant effects.

Unlike piracetam, phenylpiracetam exhibits a specific anticonvulsant and antipsychotic action. In this study, the substance had a marked neuroleptic activity in models of positive and negative symptoms of psychoses as well as in the cholinergic pathway. The compound markedly antagonized haloperidol catalepsy. Thus, it was concluded by these researchers that when phenylpiracetam is used in a single dose or as a course treatment, it does not provoke aggression nor intensify it. In contrast to typical and atypical antipsychotics, phenylpiracetam had no sedative action and other adverse effects. Conversely, it exhibited a positive effect on exploratory behavior and motor activity, and presented anxiolytic and antidepressant action.

Phenylpiracetam has also been studied in relation to immune stress. In this study, rats were induced the condition through pseudomonas aeruginosa, substance that produced adverse reactions in their locomotion, orientation, and exploratory activities, while anxiety levels increased. Phenylpiracetam exhibited psychoimmunomodulatory effects under these conditions, which manifested in prevention of anxiety and fear response, increase in horizontal locomotion and exploratory behavior, and improvement of immunoreactivity.

Furthermore, psychoimmunomodulating action of phenylpiracetam has been shown on the model of experimental hyperthyroidism. It has been found that the drug (14-days i.p. injection in a dose of 25 mg/kg) is capable of restoring the cellular and humoral immunoreactivity and improve psychoemotional state of animals by eliminating disturbances in the behavior reactions that appear as a result of the induced hyperthyroidism.

In conclusion, anyone who is interested in generating extra amounts of intellectual energy while avoiding the side-effects of a greedy stimulant, should try phenylpiracetam. Clean and focused intensity without a [not reported yet] letdown. Initial results starts as 100 mg per day, whereas tolerance studies have not been conducted yet.

For a general investigation into the stereoselective pharmacological activity of phenylpiracetam, refer: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21689376